
CONTENTS
N.V. Mikhailov, M.V. Vasilev, V.F. Mikhailov 
Autonomous navigation of space vehicles using GPS

3 
The present paper deals with the scientific and technical grounds for development of satellite navigation airborne equipment (SNAE) and covers the full spectrum of problems faced by SNAE designers, namely: analysis of the satellite radio navigation system (SRNS) application aboard an artificial satellite, SNAE architecture synthesis, methods of signal primary processing in spaceborne SRNS receivers, secondary processing methods of SRNS signals parameters measurements aboard an artificial satellite and SNAE preflight functional testing principles.

G.I. Dzhandzhgava, K.A. Bakhonin, G.M. Vinogradov, A.V. Trebukhov 
Hemispherical resonance gyrobased strapdown inertial navigation system

22 
The results of the development of a mockup of a strapdown inertial navigation system based on a hemispherical resonance gyro (HRG)and pendulous silicon accelerometers have been presented. The system blockdiagram has been described. Particular emphasis has been placed on the description of the mathematical model used for the HRG calibration, as well as on the problems of calibration. The HRG characteristics before and after calibration have been described.
The results of testing the system located on a fixed base, as well as when selecting angular motion of the turn table, have been given. The projected measures to improve the HRGbased SINS accuracy have been presented.

A.A. Odintsov, V.B. Vasilyeva, Yu.E. Naumov 
On one autonomous damping circuit for inertial navigation systems

33 
A circuit is proposed for autonomous damping of oscillations in the vertical determination channels and in the INS latitude and heading generation loop with the use of accelerometers signals, smoothing filters and nonlinear elements. It has been shown, by simulation as well, that smoothing filters and nonlinear elements provide the reduction of the accelerations influence on the vertical loops errors under vehicle manoeuvring and reduce the influence of heaving accelerations and accelerometers noises. The comparative analysis of the damping circuit proposed and the INS damping circuit which uses the water speed log data has been given. It has been demonstrated that in a number of cases the INS operation accuracy can be substantially increased with the use of the autonomous damping circuit proposed.

G.I. Emelyantsev, B.E. Landau, S.L. Levin, S.G. Romanenko 
On refining the drift model of electrostatic gyros of the gimballess inertial attitude control system and their calibration procedure on a test bench and under orbiting space vehicle conditio

43 
Calibration mode of the gimballess inertial attitude control system (GIACS) based on electrostatic gyros (ESG) is considered at the system start onboard orbiting space vehicle (SV).
The ESGbased GIACS was tested on a ground test bench. The results of the problem solution using the test data processing are presented.

M.A. Barulina, V.E. Dzhashitov, V.M. Pankratov, M.A. Kalinin, A.A. Papko 
Mathematical model of micromechanical accelerometer with consideration for temperature effects, thermoelastic deflected mode and dynamic effects

55 
The given work essentially develops the researches, devoted to designing, research and creation of the precision micromechanical accelerometer.
Object of research  developed in Research institute of physical measurements from Penza, the micromechanical accelerometer (fig.1) operating in conditions of temperature and mechanical effects.
The purpose of work are:
Construction of complex mathematical model of the accelerometer and its basic micromechanical sensing element (MSE), allowing to count and to research Influence of mechanical and temperature effects, geometrical, electromechanical, other characteristics and parameters on a out signal of the device in view of dynamic effects.
For achievement of the purpose are consistently solved the following connected problems.
1. Hierarchical mathematical models of thermal processes (1)(2), (fig. 2, 3) are constructed and nonstationary, threedimensional temperature fields of all accelerometer with the distributed sources of heat release and including in its structure MSE are researched (the table, fig. 6, 7).
2. The certainlyelement model (fig. 4) of the micromechanical sensing element is constructed and thermo elastic intensedeformed state MSE in view of mechanical and temperature effects is researched (fig. 811).
3. The mathematical model of dynamic drift of the accelerometer caused by its temperature and deformation fields and mechanical effects is constructed (3)(6), (fig. 5) and is researched (fig. 12, 13).
Recommendations on minimization of drift of the accelerometer are developed.
During realization of activity it is developed supporting algorithmic and the software using both universal programs of certainlyelement analysis ANSYS, and specially created original program complexes.

Yu.N. Korkishko, V.€. Fedorov, V.…. Prilutskii, V.G. Ponomarev, V.G.Marchuk, I.V.Morev, S.M.Kostritskii, ….Œ. Paderin, L.P. Nesenyuk, A.S.Buravlev, L.G.Lisin 
Navigationgrade interferometric fiber optical gyroscope

71 
Optolink's navigationgrade (0.01 deg/h) closedloop interferometric fiber optical gyroscope (FOG) is described. FOG is based on the Sagnac effect, which produces a phase difference s proportional to rotation rate in the ring interferometer. Test results obtained at CSRI "Electropribor" are presented.

T.A. Belyaeva, Ya.A. Nekrasov, Ya.V. Belyaev, S.V. Bagaeva 
Cancellation of quadrature error in RRtype micromechanical gyroscope with the use of electrodes located above tooth area

82 
Different configurations of electrodes for micro mechanical gyroscope (MMG) developed at the CSRI Elektropribor are presented. They are intended to generate torques compensating the quadrature error of the MMG. The MMG test results confirming the possibility of the quadrature error reducing at the level of the sensitive element are considered. Maximum possible level of the quadrature error to be reduced has been estimated.

A.S. Udovikov 
Investigation of the dimensional stability of highaccuracy spherical thinwalled beryllium rotors

90 
The study results of the technological tricks influence on dimensioning specifications of highaccuracy spherical beryllium structures on the example of different modifications of electrostatic gyroscope spherical rotors are presented.
Using thermocyclic processing as a working operation in the final phase of manufacturing process is justified. Such a processing allows dimensional stability of the rotors to be improved. Thermocycling modes are determined and data on the dimensioning specifications variation with time for rotors of different types are presented.

Abstracts of papers by the participants in the youth section of the 14th Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems
95 

International Public Association
The Academy of Navigation and Motion Control
Official information
E.I. Veremey 
Conference on the MATLAB package application to research and education

103 
History pages
Jorg Wagner, Helmut W. Sorg 
The machine of Bohnenberger

107 
Directional gyros and artificial horizons with their rotors suspended in two gimbals are wellknown instruments in navigation. It is widely accepted that the first device showing already this kind of rotor support is an apparatus developed about 200 years ago at the University of Tubingen, Germany, by Prof. J.G.F. Bohnenberger. The original version of this instrument had been manufactured several times in Tubingen. Unfortunately, all of the initial specimens seemed to be lost since a long time, but recently one of them was discovered during an inventory at a school in Tubingen. For this reason, the article introduces the instrument retrieved, portrays its inventor, and outlines some historical circumstances.

Information
About book "Precision gaslubricated bearings" by I.E. Sipenkov, A.Yu. Filippov, Yu.Ya. Boldyrev, B.S. Grigoriev, N.D. Zablotsky, G.A. Luchin, T.V. Panich (feedback from readers)

115 

Russian and international conferences, symposia and exhibitions 
116 

Abstracts of the published papers 
121 

