
CONTENTS
V.F.Zhuravlev 
Some details of unique experiment "Gravity Probe B" 
3 
Some details of the experiment on examination of the general relativity theory aboard an artificial Earth satellite are considered. Description is given for the experiment idea (Schiff, Stanford, 1960), geodetic precession of cryogenic gyroscope, experiment criticism (Mathey, Paris, 1967), crisis of the cryogenic gyroscopy idea, Mathey theory disproof (Institite for Problems in Mechanics RAS, Moscow, 1975), LenseThirring precession, lunisolar influence, Thomas precession, gyroscope kinematic precession in the Earth field by Logunov, final sizing up of the almost semicentennial experiment.


G.I.Emelyantsev, B.A.Blazhnov, A.N.Korotkov, L.P.Nesenyuk, A.P.Stepanov 
Design of the integrated inertial satellite system for vehicles with the ballistic trajectory motion at the initial period 
8 
The study deals with the structure, algorithms and errors of the integrated orientation and navigation system (IONS) for a highly manoeuvrable vehicle having fast rotation around the longitudinal axis and possible conic motion, the initial motion trajectory of which is ballistic. Observation and autonomous modes of the IONS operation, the peculiarities of intertask communication between navigation and orientation tasks under conditions of the vehicle motion along the ballistic trajectory are considered as well as possible method to provide for observability of orientation errors with the use of the SNS data. The simulation results of the IONS operation, of the bench tests and sea trials of the prototype of the strapdown inertial measuring unit on MMG developed by CSRI Elektropribor and of the SNS GLONASS/GPS receiving equipment unit developed by JSC RIRV, with the office studies of their data according to the IONS algorithms in the Matlab package are presented.


V.A.Vasiljev, O.A. Stepanov, A.V.Osipov 
Bayesian and fuzzy nonlinear estimation algorithms 
22 
An approach to designing nonlinear estimation algorithms based on fuzzy logic is offered. The approach suggested is compared with the wellknown Bayesian approach, their special features are discussed. It is shown that with certain assumptions the algorithms obtained in the context of two approaches agree with each other.


N.I.Krobka 
New noncommutative kinematic effect and its visualization in the FOGbased strapdown inertial orientation systems 
36 
A brief review of state of the art in fiberoptic gyros (FOG) developments for space applications is given. The results of investigations of the accuracy of strapdown inertial orientation systems (SIOS) based on threeaxis FOG (TFOG) are presented. The methodical conception of analytical estimations of SIOS accuracy is resulted. TFOG configuration with single light source is discussed. The peculiarity of such type TFOG is the following: in case of TFOG based on three autonomous oneaxis FOG, a correlation matrix of noise has three nonzero diagonal elements only, but in case of TFOG with single light source, the correlation matrix of noise has all nine nonzero elements. The difference of noise correlations in three information channels of TFOG can lead to the essential difference (by orders) of SIOS accuracy. The analysis of this new nonnoted in gyroscopy and navigation noncommutative kinematic effect is presented.


Ya.I. Binder, T.V. Paderina, V.G. Rozentsvein 
Highefficiency precision directional survey of slim well bores. The results of practical implementation 
52 
The paper considers the results of the development and implementation of a novel smallsized cable gyro inclinometer (GI) 42.03 (UGI42.03) intended for precision continuous survey of wellbores. The structure, configuration and operation algorithms of the GI, the stateoftheart instrument for monitoring wellbore position, are considered.


A.M.Boronakhin, L.N.Oleinik, N.S.Filipenya 
The smallsize integrated system for railway track diagnostics 
63 
The candidate solution of the problem of railway diagnostics using the integrated system is considered. The compact integrated system consists of: four inertial measurement unit based on MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) gyros and accelerometers, four mechanical motion transducers, INS (Inertial Navigation System) based on fiber optic gyros, GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver. The disposition of every subsystem is shown in the figure 2. The operation algorithm of railway diagnostics compact integrated system is illustrated in the figure 4. The railway characteristics estimated by means of the integrated system after the experimental passage on the flaw detector car are presented in the figures 810. The preference of integration of MEMS with INS and GNSS for railway diagnostics is corroborated.


Philippe Lavoie, Di Li, Rene Jr. Landry 
Inertial navigation system developed for MEMS applications 
75 
The purpose of this study is to validate a developed INS/GPS integration algorithm for embeddable positioning and navigation purpose using MEMS IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) sensors. MEMS IMU sensors present unique noise characteristics and generally contain highlevel noise inherent in the output data. In this paper, we investigate an advanced error modeling technique to evaluate these errors. With the proposed error models, the impacts of the MEMS noises can be characterized in terms of random noise, bias, quantization error, scale factor correction and missalignment errors. By employing this model in the INS calculation, the compensation of the deterministic noise terms from the raw MEMS measurements can be greatly improved. A loosely coupled Kalman filtering design for INS/GPS integration is also presented in this paper. Hence, the random noise compensation of MEMS sensors can be achieved for the proposed Kalman filter design.


A.V.Polushkin, L.Ya.Kalihman, D.M.Kalihman, S.F.Nahov R.V.Ermakov, D.A.Belyakov, S.N.Shatskov, V.A.Lomov, A.D.Shapran 
The results of generalpurpose hardware development for monitoring a wide range of inertial devices 
86 
In conditions of total computer application for control and monitoring processes in different spheres of human activity it is reasonable to use a new approach to designing inertial device monitoring facilities at instrumentmaking enterprises.
This approach has found its application in a number of problems being solved by foreign companies, such as National Instruments. These companies deal with development of measurement and automation systems, for example, a modular system of signal conditioning SCXI, a system distributed input/output for industrial control FieldPoint, configurable instrumentation system CompactRIO. The similar systems are developed by Agilent Technologies company.
In the article the author offers the circuit solutions for multipurpose test equipment based on the buildingblock concept using the stateoftheart element base, microprocessors and measuring devices of high accuracy class for testing any type of inertial spinrate meters, angle and specific force meters, as well as units designed on their base.


Brief note
V. V. Narver, V. N. Narver, V. V. Patrushev 
The crosshair for true azimuth observation 
101 
The article deals with a method of an astronomical sighting device development for azimuth determination and its transmission to users. The astronomical sighting device comprises optic unit with a television receiver, unit of levels and data processing unit with a timer. A distinctive feature of the optic unit is the use of a special reflector placed in front of the telescope lens. The special reflector represents two rigidly connected reflectors, one of which is a prism  180?, and the second is a flat mirror. The sighting device axis is the perpendicular to the flat mirror coinciding with the prism  180? angle bisectrix. In this case the flux from a star in a horizontal plane is divided by the special reflector into two fluxes, which further enter the telescope lens. The first flux in a horizontal plane is parallel to the incident flux but has the opposite direction. The second flux is normally reflected from the flat mirror. In case the star is situated not on the sighting device axis two images of the same star are formed in the telescope viewing field. Repeatedly determining a temporary position of the star first and second images, one can determine the sighting device axis azimuth using the known formulas. Various variants of the special reflector construction and the transmission methods for the azimuth direction from the collimation axis to the users are described. The application of the special reflector proposed and the techniques of the azimuth transmission to the users makes it possible to exclude the telescope collimation error and to increase the accuracy of the azimuth transmission.


International Public Association
The Academy of Navigation and Motion Control
Official information
To the 80th anniversary from I.N.Sapozhnikov birthday 
109 
New books
On the book "Back to fundamentals of the estimation theory as applied to the problems of navigational data processing. Part 1. Introduction to the estimation theory" by O.A.Stepanov 
111 
Information
V.E.Dzhashitov, V.M.Pankratov, A.V.Golikov 
Research and educational computer course in the engineering mechanics, general and applied theory of gyros 
113 
The methodical aspects and the practical experience of creating and using computer technologies in lecturing on the theoretical mechanics and the theory of gyroscopes are considered. Possible contents and the important features of the computer lectures are presented. The lectures are given as the set of PowerPoint presentations and dynamic visualization embedded software. The course allows for the computer simulation and dynamic threedimensional visualization of the motion equations and operating principles for all basic types of gyroscopes, kinematics and dynamics of various mechanisms and phenomena of mechanical motion. The original software was developed for the dynamic visualization.


Russian and international conferences, symposia and exhibitions
Full text

122 
Abstracts of the published papers 
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