Journal "Gyroscopy and Navigation" /  Books  
   "Gyroscopy and Navigation" №2 (49), 2005


V.G.Peshekhonov Elektropribor and Development of Home Gyroscopy and Marine Navigation 3
The land navigation systems state and prospects of their development and application are analyzed for all types of movable land vehicles. Modern traditionally used navigation systems (for marine air and space vehicles) usually represent inertial navigation complexes augmented with satellite data receivers, inertial sensors and computers providing realization of algorithms processing all available measurements thus aiming to obtain the most precise navigation parameters for the available composition of the equipment. It is also true for the land navigation systems, except the following specific features: Prevailing for today role of the satellite navigation systems, large-scale application and use of digital high accuracy chart data, integration of navigation and communication aids including the Internet, necessity of guarantee for solving the indoor navigation problem. The marked features are of peculiar interest for the consist, car, agricultural vehicle, pedestrian and indoor moving object application.
Yu.G.Martynenko, A.M.Formalsky Methods of Unstable Entity stabilization 7
If the desirable operational mode of some object is unstable, the most important control problem is to stabilize this desirable mode. There are some difficulties to solve the problem of synthesis of feedback control to stabilize the necessary mode. The resources of control system are usually limited, therefore unstable object can be removed to the necessary operational mode not from any state. In other words, there is some set of states, from which one the system with limited resources of control can reach a desirable mode. This set takes a part of the phase space. It is accepted to call this set as area of controllability. The basin of attraction of desirable operational mode with concrete control feedback belongs to area of controllability. Here basin of attraction as usually calls set of initial states, from which one the system with feedback control asymptotically tends to a desirable mode. If the basin of attraction is too small, the desirable mode practically can not be realized. The basin of attraction can be small in two cases: or the resources of control are poor, or the control law is designed not by the best way. Thus, there is a problem of a maximization of basin of attraction. Let's mark, that this problem is key at designing of not contact gyros. In the present article, the indicated problem is considered on examples of control of an inverted one-link pendulum with flywheel or with dumb-bell, of control of single-wheel vehicle (monocycle). The stabilization of mechanical systems, as is known, can be carried out through gyroscopic forces. As examples of gyroscopic stabilization of unstable controlled mechanical systems here are considered single-wheel robot with unperturbed gyrostabilized platform and bicycle with gyrostabilizer. Both are designed in Institute of Mechanics of Moscow Lomonosov State University.
O.I.Fedoskin Data Processing Nonnormal Algorithm for Aircraft SINS 19
The approach is described to optimize strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS) algorithms on the basis of vehicle's dynamic model. The aviation SINS algorithms synthesis method is propagated. To evaluate the potential characteristics of the dynamics aided aviation SINS and to compare them with the tradition systems the numerical research is provided. Equations for state vector's covariance matrix were solved. For the purpose of modeling the hypothetic aircraft (when in straight level flight and maneuvering) dynamics model was used. It is shown that navigation and especially attitude accuracy can be significantly increased on the basis of vehicle's dynamic model.
S.P.Dmitriev, D.A.Koshaev Information Monitoring and Diagnostics of Duplicate Inertial Systems 30
The paper considers the problem of monitoring and diagnostics of the informational failures occurring in the navigational complexes of minimum redundancy comprising two INS damped by the data from the water speed log. The failures manifest themselves in the increase of the error of the INS sensitive elements (SE) - gyroscopes and accelerometers - to the level beyond the nominal characteristics.
The method proposed to solve the problem is the method of multialternative filtering with the measurements formed on the basis of the second derivatives of displacements differences and derivative of headings difference generated by two INS. Usage of such measurements allows to increase sensitivity to failures and to use simple models for them. The algorithm includes building a bank of Kalman filters, each of them related to one of the hypotheses of a failure in a certain SE. It allows to estimate the failure in SE and to determine the probability of a hypothesis.
The results of simulation and experimental verification presented in the paper show the possibility to determine faults within a few minutes after the fault has occurred and high accuracy of fault estimates, which allow to carry out compensation for INS faults. The efficiency of rather simple computational procedures used for INS reconditioning after a fault was demonstrated with simulation.
V.A. Tupysev Guaranteed Estimation of the Dynamic System State in the Case of Uncertainty in Description of Disturbances and Measurement Errors 47
The analytical method for guaranteed estimation of parameter uncertainty in the description of disturbances and measurement errors is considered. Conditions are stated for the Kalman filter adjustment that guarantee such estimation. It is noted that in some cases the adjustment parameters for the complicated models have to be chosen beyond the intervals of the parameter uncertainty.
V.L.Solunin, B.G.Gursky, E.P.Spirin Correlation-extremal systems for aircraft high accuracy navigation and computer diagnostics of complex diseases 56
Design of high precision UAV guidance systems requires development of onboard and ground-based information systems, comprising special image-processing systems. They include onboard inertial and satellite navigation systems, correlation-extremal and satellite systems of geophysical fields navigation and ground-based systems providing intelligence information processing, target designation and preparation of reference information.
To implement these systems hardware-software complexes comprising data sensors, information processing and communication systems were designed.
Tests of the high precision navigation systems conducted with the mathematical modeling and seminatural bench and flight tests have shown a high degree of performance of the systems in different operating conditions.
The developed methods of image processing using correlation-extremal algorithms made it possible to design up-to-date medical computer systems of diagnostics of complex diseases of the optical nerve, prostate gland, mammary gland and craniofacial diseases apart from providing high precision UAV navigation.
Creation of the diagnostic systems resulted from the application of the methods developed for the high precision control systems. Usage of these systems allows to increase substantially the effectively of early diagnostics and therapy of complex diseases while the time required for the diagnostic is steeply reduced.
The computer diagnostic systems were installed in several leading medical centers of Russia and are currently passing medical-technical tests.
A.Yu. Feoktistov, K.G.Shupen Equipment for State Monitoring of GLONASS and GPS Satellite Navigation Systems. Results of Experimental Research 62
The paper presents the results of experimental research of GLONASS/GPS monitoring equipment designed in Russian Institute of Radionavigation and Time (RIRT). The research has been made both by the modeling method using special designed software and by test in real conditions of the equipment work. As a result, of the experimental researches, the suitableness of the offered monitoring algorithm was confirmed and the numerical estimations of the main characteristics of the equipment were obtained.
G. I. Emelyantsev, B. Ye. Landau, S. L. Levin, S. G. Romanenko Drift Calibration for ESG-based Spacecraft Inertial Orientation System Using Celestial Viewfinde 69
The present paper considers algorithm for angular position correction and calibration of ESG drift model coefficients (DMC) of airborne strapdown inertial orientation system (SIOS) using star-tracking sensor (STS) data under space ESG operating conditions. ESG and STS data are simultaneously processed using algorithm of extended Kalman filter of order 23 with feedback over the entire state vector of the system. It is necessary to take into account nonlinearity of certain model coefficients, SIOS and STS sensitive axes relative position errors to solve the problem of position correction and ESG drift model coefficients correction as well. Initially estimated errors of ESG drift prediction are determined in the quasi-inertial coordinate system being in agreement with orthogonal gyroscopic coordinate system when data from STS are coming (moments of ESG position correction). It means that gyroscopic trihedron precession in the quasi-inertial coordinate system is measured discretely. Algorithm simulation data of calibration of ESG drift model coefficients (DMC) and angular position correction of airborne strapdown inertial orientation system (SIOS) at space vehicle angular deviation are given too.
D. P. Loukianov, A. A. Tikhonov, Yu.V. Filatov, A.G. Povalyaev, S. Yu. Shevchenko, I V. Popova, A.M. Lestev, M.A. Lestev, V.V. Novikov, M.S. Vershinin The Development and Optimization of a SAW-Microaccelerometer structure. Part I 79
The paper discusses the feasibility of designing and manufacturing a new generation of microsensors on surface acoustic waves (SAW). The investigation is concerned with the SAW-microaccelerometer, which has a number of advantages over similar conventional micromechanical devices. The differential circuit with single-port resonators included in the circuit of two active oscillators allows obtaining frequency output signal and reducing external destabilizing effects. The cantilever construction of the sensitive element (SE) made of ST-cut crystalline quartz provides the maximum thermal stability with the simplest conventional microfabrication technology. A mathematical model for a solid-state SAW-accelerometer has been developed. An analytical analysis and mathematical simulation of the microaccelerometer SE have been carried out; the SE performance has been evaluated.Particular attention is given to the analysis of SE cantilever surface deformation that causes changes in the parameters of SAW-resonators, as well as to the estimation of the SE natural frequencies and modes of oscillations. The investigation made use of analytical methods and the method of finite-element analysis realized through the program package ANSYS. The geometry and dimensions of the cantilever elastic component were optimized in order to provide homogeneity of surface deformation along the full length of the SE.The development of the electronics for the SAW-microaccelerometer involved the study of equivalent and frequency response functions of single-port SAW-resonators. The program package Ansoft Designer was employed in designing the schematic circuit of the oscillators.The experimental investigation included the SAW-microaccelerometer performance test, evaluation of setup time, the analysis of the differential frequency signal proportional to acceleration, preliminary estimation of the microaccelerometer accuracy characteristics. The microaccelerometer scale factor and bias have been determined.

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O.A. Stepanov Land Navigation Systems. State and Prospects 95
The state-of-the-art of navigation systems for various land vehicles, prospects for their development and application are analyzed. It is noted that land navigation systems, as well as traditional seaborne, airborne and spaceborne navigation systems, are integrated navigation ones. As a rule, the latter include the satellite receivers, inertial sensors and computers that realize the algorithms for processing of all the available measurements. Yet it should be pointed out that land systems possess a number of peculiar features, among which are the prevailing role of satellite navigation systems, intensive implementation and application of digital high-accuracy charts, integration of navigation and communication aids, including the Internet, the need to solve problems of indoor navigation. The features mentioned above are discussed in detail, as applied to rail road, automobiles, precision agriculture, pedestrians, objects moving indoors.
5th Asian Control Conference 121

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Last updated July 31, 2005.