Journal "Gyroscopy and Navigation" /  Books  
   "Gyroscopy and Navigation" №4, 2009
 
 

CONTENTS

I.Ye.Veremey Synthesis of multipurpose motion control laws for marine vehicles 3
The subject of this paper is consideration of the analytical design problem for the systems of marine vehicles motion control. The complexity of this problem is de-termined by presence of an extensive population of certain dynamical conditions, requirements and restrictions that essentially hampers use of synthesis methods in framework of classical control theory. In this connection the mentioned problem can be decoupled into particular optimization problems on the base of a special multipurpose structure of control laws that is discussed in details. This structure in-cludes some varying elements which are switched on as required for the certain re-gime of motion to improve its dynamical performance indexes. Central attention is paid to the questions of dynamical correctors tuning to give desirable features for the vehicle motion under sea wave conditions. This problem is considered taking into account all the correspondent requirements and restrictions for the processes quality. A simple method of correctors synthesis is proposed with the assumption that sea waves have a regular nature. A numerical example is considered that illus-trates applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach.
B.A.Blazhnov, D.A. Koshaev Determination of the motion relative path and attitude control angles from the GNSS phase measurements and micromechanical gyroscope data 15
A short review of the existing methods for the phase measurements ambiguity resolution is given. The general structure of the developed algorithms for solving relative navigation and attitude determination problems with the use of GNSS phase measurements is presented. Two GNSS receivers and a gyroscope with vertical sensitivity axis, rigidly fixed on the vehicle are supposed to be used in the attitude determination problem. For both problems the original techniques for searching integer number of phase measurement cycles are revealed. They make it possible to reduce computational costs for the ambiguity resolution in comparison with the existing methods. With the ambiguity resolution in the attitude determination problem the integer number of phase measurement cycles is matched with the known value of antenna base length. In this problem the gyroscope data are used taking uncertainty of pitch and roll angles into account. Efficiency of the developed algorithms was demonstrated basing on real single-frequency GNSS measurements and micromechanical gyroscope data on a car and onboard a ship. Reliability of the obtained solutions was approved including the ones for the relative navigation problem on the base of about 20 km and for the attitude determination problem in the conditions of frequent GNSS signal blackouts and poor geometry of the available satellites.
N.V. Mikhailov, V.F. Mikhailov Signal processing in space-borne GNSS receivers 35
Development of space-borne satellite navigation receivers is a complicated R&D task since Global Satellite Navigation Systems were not designed for the user equipment to be placed on board of satellites. This article provides the analysis results of the peculi-arities of space conditions and its influence on the design of the signal processing. The analysis was carried out for three mission types - geostationary GEO, low-earth orbiting (LEO) and high-elliptic orbits (HEO). Based on the analysis, the requirements for the signal processing in space-borne receivers are given. Furthermore, software architecture for space-borne GNSS receivers is suggested, and an original search algorithm is de-scribed. The search algorithm belongs to the truncated sequential search algorithms. Several methods of signal search organization are described, each of them satisfies one or more requirements. Approaches for tracking loops design are provided, recommenda-tions for low C/N0 and low throughput CPU are given.
A. M. Alyoshechkin, V.N. Bondarenko, M.M. Valikhanov, V.I. Kokorin, Ye.V. Kuzmin Results of the experimental research of the broadband medium wave radio navigation system 46
On-board station description and high positioning spread-spectrum medium-frequency band radio navigation system (RNS) for marine navigation experimental investigation results are given. The main features of RNS are the following. The first is leaving out of ionospheric reflection influence by application of spread-spectrum signals with minimum shift keying - providing signal range Dmax ≈ 600 km. round the clock. And the second - principal station (PS) time scale external synchronization providing by using global navigation satellites sys-tems (GNSS) GLONASS and GPS signals.
Timing waveform of RNS is presented on fig. 1. RNS on-board station structure chart are shown on fig. 2. On-board station appearance is shown by fig. 3. Test op-eration was made in the region of Gulf of Finland. The datum points were based in settlements: PS1 - Lomonosov, PS2 - Viborg, PS3 - Luga (fig. 4). Pseudo range measurements results in time of anchorage (near the Gogland Island) by each of PS are given in fig. 5. On-board station coordinate measuring results are presented in fig. 6. Radio-navigation parameters measuring results in case of on-board station motion are given in fig. 7.
Examined RNS provides accuracy of surface vessel coordinate measuring not bad then 15 m (root-mean-square error) in cases of geometric quotient less then 3 and signal range Dmax ≈ 600 km.
A.A. Krasnov, A.A. Odintsov, I.V. Semyonov Gravimeter gyroscopic stabilization system 54
The peculiarities of the stabilization system for a gravimeter used onboard air-planes are considered. In the error analysis scaling errors of gyros and accelerometers are taken into account as well as orientation errors of their measuring axes in relation to the gyroplatform axes. The simulation results are presented. The issues of selecting a time constant for the stabilization system are discussed with a view to achieve the most effective gravity survey. The recommendations on orientation accuracy of the sensor measuring axes are given. The influence of the airplane manoeuvring parameters on the accuracy of the vertical determination is examined.
D.G. Gryazin, L.P. Nesenyuk Marine pitch-and-roll buoys. Current status and progress trends 70
The paper presents a mathematical technique which determines the statistical and spectral characteristics of sea disturbance. The current status of technical progress in the sphere of pitch-and-roll buoy design is overviewed. The development of buoys is shown to trend towards employing the micromechanical inertial modules which can measure both the wave elevation and wave slope. If the law of wave elements distribution is used to determine the wave elevation, the disturbance measurement errors are not significant if low precision micromechanical sensors are applied. It is proposed to employ the micromechanical sensors and modules de-veloped by CSRI Elektropribor in Russian-made buoys.

International Public Association
The Academy of Navigation and Motion Control
O f f i c i a l   i n f o r m a t i o n

27th General Meeting of the Academy of Navigation and Motion Control 81
A.V. Balov Present and future of radionavigation 84
The state and development prospects of radio engineering systems of the coordi-nate, navigation and time support included in the radio engineering plans of the Russian Federation and the USA are considered. The main attention is given to global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) and space systems augmenting their functionalities. The problems of updating the radionavigation systems with ground-based reference stations "Chayka" /LORAN-C are also discussed. The result of this updating is an opportunity to use the systems as the basic national GNSS backup systems in case of GNSS inaccessibility.
The article was presented at the annual General Meeting of the International Public Association - Academy of Navigation and Motion Control on 27 May 2009.
B.R. Andrievsky, A.L. Fradkov Control and monitoring through the channels of communication with a limited carrying capacity 103
The analysis of publications presented in the review and of some other publications results in the incontrovertible conclusion: nowadays the information theory and the control theory become closer. This process can be qualified as a return to the initial integral concept of the cybernetics as a science of control and communication. Thus, the new subject does not need a new name, it is nothing else but cybernetics in the sense defined by its founder N. Wiener as "the study of control and commu-nication in the animal and the machine" [71]. The present overview gives an idea about the main results in the specified field, obtained for the last decades. The fo-cus of further research shifts to the problems of nonlinear and network system con-trol as well as to the calculation of computational constraints in control and estima-tion problems.

New books

Eagerly awaited book. About G.S. Malyshev's book "Optimum and adaptive hydroacoustic signal processing methods". Volume 1. "Optimum methods" 115

Information

Russian and international conferences, symposiums, and exhibitions 117
To the attention of authors and readers of Gyroscopy and Navigation 123
List of the materials published in the journal Gyroscopy and Navigation in 2009 128


Abstracts of the journal papers
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at http://www.elektropribor.spb.ru (Section "Publications")
 
 
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Last updated December 28, 2009.