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Guidance and Control Problems of Marine Vehicle Track-Keeping

S.P.Dmitriev, A.E.Pelevin

160 p.
© S.P.Dmitriev, A.E.Pelevin, 2002
S.Petersburg, SRC of Russia - CSRI Elektropribor, 2002 (in Russian)
ISBN 5-900780-36-8.


The book deals with the problem of optimal ship stabilization on a trajectory under the effect of stochastic disturbances with the state vector measured either not fully or in error. Particular attention has been given to:
- substantiation of the possibility to use a suboptimal law in controlling a nonlinear object;
- allowance made for uncertainty of ship model parameters and disturbances using the control law, identification and state vector estimation;
- study of optimal methods for processing navigation information with consideration for dynamic features of the control object;
- definition of the requirements to the accuracy of navigation data sensors based on the analysis of ship motion control efficiency.
The book is intended for scientists, engineers and technicians engaged in navigation and motion control, as well as for teachers training postgraduates and high-school students in these subjects.

Bibliography: 175 references. 8 illustrations.

CONTENTS

Introduction. 3
Chapter 1. Problem Statement of Marine Vehicle Track-Keeping8
 1.1. Methods of Control Optimization-
 1.2. Track-Keeping of a Ship in the Modern Navigation Systems20
 1.3. Equations of Ship Motion 24
 1.4. Environmental Disturbances 27
 1.5. Error Models for Navigation Data Sensors30
 1.6. Main Problems of Track-Keeping 32
Chapter 2. Reasoning of Linear Quadratic Approach for Nonlinear Ship Model37
 2.1. Performance Index of Track-Keeping -
 2.2. Lower and Upper Boundary Estimation of Performance Index Value   Under Stochastic Disturbances46
 2.3. Reasoning of an Opportunity to Use the Linear Quadratic Approach54
Chapter 3. Robust Control and Guaranteeing Filtering under Uncertainty Parameters   Model of State Vector 58
 3.1. Problem statement -
 3.2. Control Law with the Reduced Sensitivity to   the Model Parameters Uncertainty62
 3.3. Guaranteeing Control Law under Model Parameters Interval Uncertainty70
 3.4. Robust Track-Keeping 76
 3.5. Guaranteeing Linear Filtering under Model Parameters Uncertainty   of State Vector 80
Chapter 4. Identification of Ship Model by Multialternative Filtering Technique   and Adaptation of Control95
 4.1. Identification Methods of the Vehicle Model -
 4.2. Identification of the Vehicle Model Based on Multialternative Filtering Technique101
 4.3. Method of Base Models Construction in the Area of Vehicle Parameter Uncertainty and Disturbances   for Economical Identification105
Chapter 5. Integration of Inertial and Satellite Navigation Systems 113
 5.1. Data Processing Algorithms in Integrated Navigation Systems114
 5.2. Problem of Navigation Parameters Estimation at Noninvariant Processing of INS/SNS System Data118
 5.3. Selection of INS Type for Track-Keeping128
Conclusions131
References133
Appendix A146
Appendix B153

350 p.
Saint-Petersburg, CSRI "Elektropribor"


The book considers metrology both as a pure and application-oriented science basing on a system approach. The discussion is prefaced with the basics of the general theory of systems. Metrological problems of systems modeling are considered on the basis of the analysis of the conception of a system. It is shown that in the system information plays a role of an integral factor and control - an integral function. The essence of the system study is shown by the example of metrology.

The measurement traceability system (MTS) is dealt with as the basic metrological system. Its place in the measurement control system and national measurement system, the metasystems that rank next in the level, is shown. The structures of purposes, functions and subjects of the MTS are revealed, with emphasis on spacial(territorial) aspect or the level of localization.

The problem of centralization and decentralization are analyzed in the context of control in the MTS.

The structure and the scope of the problems of the main MTS subsystems: scientific, technical, organizational and legal are considered. Metrology of measuring systems, measuring information systems and measuring control systems were subjected to the methodological analysis. The advisability of applying the principles of metrological control to measuring information and control systems is justified. Measuring systems and measuring information systems are classified. A generalized structure of measuring control system including a measuring and information subsystems is presented. The role of classification as a general system function has been revealed. The necessity of estimating semantic information is shown, the requirements to estimates have been formulated, the relations used for estimation, as applied to the procedure of alternative and two-alternative check-in procedure, have been proposed.

The system outlook for the development of metrology is justified as a consequence of the present-day tendencies.

The discussion is illustrated with examples from measurements in navigation. A number of metrological problems are presented as a generalization of peculiarities of navigational measurements.

The book is intended for specialists of different branches of industry or science that make use of sophisticated measuring systems and complexes, as well as for designers of this kind of instrumentation. The book can be used by students and postgraduates who study the present-day metrology.

References: 166. Illustrations: 35.


CONTENTS

Introduction

Part 1. THE FUNDAMENTALS OF THE GENERAL THEORY OF SYSTEMS

Chapter 1. The conception of a system
1.1. Definition
1.2. Systematability of material matter, creative and cognitive processes
1.3. System properties (effects)

Chapter 2. Modelling of systems
2.1 A concept of a model
2.2. A model in creative and cognitive activities
2.3. The methods of modelling and version of models

Chapter 3. Information and control in systems
3.1. Interrelation and interaction of objects
3.2. Information as an inner system-forming factor
3.3. Control as a method of functional arrangement of systems

Chapter 4. Methodology of system study
4.1. The structure of system study
4.2. A system as a means for solving a problem
4.3. Decomposition: models and algorithms
4.4. Aggregation and version of aggregates
4.5.The algorithm for a system study

Part 2. METROLOGICAL SYSTEMS

Chapter 5. The measurement traceability system: purposes and functions
5.1. The concept of the measurement traceability system and its inclusion in a system
5.2. The structure of the measurement traceability system purposes
5.3.The functional structure of the measurement traceability system
5.4. Configurator of the measurement traceability system

Chapter 6. The measurement traceability system: subject matter
6.1. The generalized subject-matter structure of the measurement traceability system
6.2. Measurement traceability systems for various measurement domains

Chapter 7. The measurement traceability system: spatial (territorial) aspect
7.1. Measurement traceability in a research laboratory (of a research institute) or an industrial enterprise
7.2. The regional system of the measurement traceability
7.3. Interrelation of spatial and subject-matter aspects

Chapter 8. Control in the measurement traceability system: centralization and decentralization
8.1. The measurement traceability system as a controllable organizational and technical system
8.2. The principles of centralization and decentralization in the development of measurement traceability systems
8.3. The sphere of primarily centralized control
8.4. The sphere of decentralized control

Chapter 9. Scientific metrology subsystem
9.1.Scientific metrology as a measurement traceability subsystem
9.2. Theoretical metrology and the theory of measurements
9.3. The structure of theoretical metrology subjects

Chapter 10. The technical subsystem of metrology
10.1. Classification of metrological instruments
10.2. International reference standards
10.3. The national system of reference standards
10.4. Reference materials, calibration blocks and standard reference data

Chapter 11. Organizational subsystem of metrology
11.1. Metrological activity
11.2.Interrelation of metrology and standartization
11.3. Organizational realization of metrology purposes and metrological functions
11.4. The international organizational and procedural system of metrology
11.5. The national system of organization of metrological activity

Chapter 12. The legal subsystem of metrology
12.1.Interrelation of the legal and organizational subsystems: the system level and the status of a metrological document

Part 3. METROLOGY OF MEASURING, MEASURING INFARMATION AND MEASURING CONTROL SYSTEMS

Chapter 13. Measuring systems
13.1 The concept of a measuring system: a measuring system as a aggregation of measuring instruments
13.2. Classification of measuring systems
13.3. Insurance of uniformity of measuring instruments

Chapter 14. Measuring information systems
14.1. The concept of a measuring information systems
14.2. Classification of measuring information systems
14.3. Measuring and information functions of a system
14.4. Assignment indices for a measuring information system

Chapter 15. Measuring control systems
15.1 The concept of a measuring control system
15.2. Classification of measuring control systems
15.3. Measuring and information functions of a system

Part 4. THE SYSTEM OUTLOOK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF METROLOGY

Chapter 16. The problem of the system boundary in metrology
16.1. The problem of the volume of fundamental concepts in metrology
16.2. The sphere of application of the accuracy concept
16.3. Versions of quantitative estimation
16.4. Classification as a general procedure in data processing
16.5. Measurement as an information procedure of quantitative estimation

Chapter 17. The forecast for the development of metrology
17.1. The factors influencing the development of metrology
17.2. The analysis of previous stages of development
17.3. The trends in metrology development

Conclusion

356 p.
Saint-Petersburg, CSRI "Elektropribor"



The book deals with integrated orientation and navigation systems (IONS) which are the main source of information of automatic motion control systems of marine vehicles.

The purpose and the basic design of IONS are considered, the algorithms for the operation of strapdown inertial measurement units (SIMU) and receivers of spacecraft navigation systems (SNS) are given. The purpose and the problems solved by electronic chart display information systems (ECDIS) are described. The SIMU mathematical error models based on different types of gyroscopes and gyroless SIMU are presented, as well as IONS error models for alignment and calibration modes, autonomous and observation operational modes.

The state of the art in the development of the main modules of IONS, in particular, SIMU sensitive elements, receivers of SNS and ECDIS is reviewed. The present-day requirements are formulated and structure of IONS for ships and vessels of various classes is described.

The accuracy in generation of navigational and dynamic motion parameters of marine vehicles provided by IONS based on SIMU with electrostatic, laser and fiber-optic gyros, as well as gyroless SIMU with angular accelerometers is analysed. A mathematical model, analytical expressions for errors and the results of computational error modeling are given for each of IONS considered in the book.

The book is intended for engineers, technicians and researchers engaged in marine engineering, navigation and marine motion control problems. The book can be used by teachers, postgraduates and senior students of naval schools.

References: 79. Illustrations: 71.

The book review published in journal "Gyroscopy and Navigation" No 1(28), 2000.


CONTENTS

Introduction

Chapter 1. The construction and the algorithms of integrated orientation and navigation systems for ships and marine vessels
1.1. The purpose, the problems to be solved and the structure
1.2. Interfaces and information networks
1.3. Operational modes and the methods of integrated data processing used in them
1.4. The algorithms for operation of strapdown inertial measurement units
1.5. The methods and algorithms for navigation determination in satellite navigation systems
1.6. The purpose and the problems solved by electronic chart display navigation information systems

Chapter 2. Error models of integrated orientation and navigation systems
2.1. The error models of strapdown inertial measurement units
2.2. The error models of satellite navigation systems
2.3. The error model of the relative log
2.4. The models of IONS errors in generation of navigation and dynamic parameters

Chapter 3. The state of the art and the problems of development of the main modules of integrated orientation and navigation systems for marine vehicles/carriers
3.1. Strapdown inertial measurement units and their sensitive elements
3.2. The receivers of satellite navigation systems
3.3. The electronic chart display information systems
3.4. The present-day requirements to the IONS. The composition of the IONS for marine vessels of various classes

Chapter 4. The accuracy analysis for integrated orientation and navigation systems in generating navigation and dynamic motion parameters of marine vehicles
4.1. General provisions
4.2. The integrated orientation and navigation system based on a SIMU with electrostatic gyroscopes
4.3. The integrated orientation and navigation system based on a SIMU with laser gyroscopes
4.4. The integrated orientation and navigation system based on a SIMU with fiber-optic gyroscopes
4.5. The integrated orientation and navigation system based on a gyroless SIMU

Appendices
Appendix 1. Strapdown inertial navigation systems of the NATO ships
Appendix 2. An integrated orientation and navigation system for SEAPATH 400 ships/vessels
Appendix 3. The algorithms for modeling the motion of the SIMU seating

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Journal "Giroskopiya i Navigatsiya" website (in Russian)
• based on fiber-optic gyros (FOG)
• based on micromechanical gyros (MMG)
• Shipborne speed and depth meters
• Magnetic compasses
• Communication complex Distancia-E
• Integrated Shipborne Communication and Broadcasting Complex P-409
• Trailing towed array device K-697E
• Equipment for shipborne self-powered telephone communication BTS
• Shipborne automatic digital telephone exchange P-443E
• Floating information assemblies for submarines
• Mobile aeromarine gravimeter Chekan-AM
• Multi-purpose bottomhole remote sensing system UZTS-90
• Micromechanical gyro MMG-2
• Micromechanical gyro MMG-EPTRON
• Multi-channel micro-acceleration measurement system SINUS
• Autonomous attitude control system for low-orbiting spacecrafts