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Onboard navigation and orientation systems for artificial Earth satellites

  O.N.Anuchin, I.E. Komarova, L.F. Porfiryev
St. Petersburg: SRC of Russia - CSRI "Elektropribor", 2004. - 326 p.

Price - 60 RUR

© SRC of Russia - CSRI "Elektropribor", 2004
© O.N.Anuchin, I.E. Komarova, L.F. Porfiryev, 2004
ISBN 5-900780-53-8

The book deals with theoretical and practical issues of designing complex onboard navigation and orientation systems which form the basis for up-to-date motion control systems of space vehicles (SV) and artificial Earth satellites (AES). Algorithmic description of their operation processes is presented, accuracy estimate is given for tasks solution at different primary navigation information sources used, arrangement of its measuring. Up-to-date scientific methods of information processing using up-to-date equipment are described.
The book is intended for a wide range of specialists engaged in development, testing and operation of onboard navigation and orientation systems for SV and AES. It can be a good educational aid for senior students and postgraduates.


Introduction 3
Chapter 1. Laws of motion of AES center of mass in the near-Earth space 14
1.1. General motion equation of material point in the outer space -
1.2. Motion equation of AES center of mass near the Earth 16
1.3. Solution of motion equations of AES center of mass in the central gravitational field 23
1.4. Peculiarities of AES disturbed motion 33
1.5. Equations of mutual motion of SV in the near-Earth space 39
1.6. Influence of deviations in initial conditions on AES motion trajectory 42
1.7. General statement and solution principles of AES navigation problem using onboard measurements 54
Chapter 2. Statement and solution methods of AES orientation problems 62
2.1. General statement of AES orientation problems and selection of coordinate systems -
2.2. Orientation parameters and kinematic equations of AES motion around the center of mass 67
2.3. Possible solution algorithms for orientation kinematic equations 74
Chapter 3. Sources of primary navigation information for solution of AES navigation and orientation problems 80
3.1. General characteristic of primary navigation information sources -
3.2. Inertial sources of primary navigation information 85
3.3. Astronomical sources of primary navigation information 92
3.4. Possibilities to use some physical fields for AES navigation and orientation 105
3.5. Satellite navigation systems 109
3.6. Land command-and-measurement complexes 117
Chapter 4. Methods for determining AES orbit parameters at minimum amount of primary navigation information 121
4.1. Problems of determining orbit parameters with the use of minimum amount of information -
4.2. Determining position vector by measurements of zenith distances of two stars and flight altitude 127
4.3. Refinement of the position vector by measurements of primary navigation parameters 131
4.4. Determination of orbit parameters by measurements of the vector in several points 137
Chapter 5. Statistical methods for estimation of AES orbit parameters and orientation 146
5.1. General statement of determination problems for AES orbit parameters and orientation in statistical methods of information processing -
5.2. General procedure of information processing by statistical methods 151
5.3. Peculiarities of statistical processing methods application at estimating orbit parameters 172
Chapter 6. AES inertial navigation and orientation systems 178
6.1. Construction principles and classification of AES inertial navigation and orientation systems -
6.2. Functioning algorithms of AES strapdown inertial navigation systems in orientation mode (on passive flight phases) 206
6.3. Operation algorithms of AES strapdown inertial systems in navigation and orientation problem solution mode on active flight phases 222
Chapter 7. AES integrated onboard navigation and orientation systems 228
7.1. Structure, arrangement and composition of integrated onboard navigation and orientation systems for AES -
7.2. Astroinertial measuring unit 234
7.3. Functioning algorithms of integrated strapdown inertial navigation and orientation systems (SINOS) in orientation mode 249
7.4. Algorithms of SINOS drift astrocorrection in orientation mode 263
7.5. Algorithms for solution of navigation and orientation problems in emergency conditions 270
Chapter 8. Methods for accuracy estimation of AES navigation and orientation problems solution by onboard autonomous systems 276
8.1. Problems and possible ways of accuracy estimation of AES navigation and orientation problems solution -
8.2. General procedure for navigation accuracy estimation at processing by the method of least squares 280
8.3. Ways and possibilities of obtaining analytical accuracy estimates by using the results of statistical processing of discrete measurements 283
8.4. Methods for accuracy estimation of AES navigation and orientation problems solution by imitation mathematical simulation 307
Conclusions 319
References 320
Foreword 3
Introduction 5
Chapter 1. Foundations of General Reliability Theory for Technical Systems 14
1.1. Technical System Hardware Reliability. Probabilistic Assessment 14
1.2. Simple Flow of Events and Markov Models for Technical System Operation 19
1.3. Reliability of Redundant Technical Systems 26
1.4. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Technical Systems 35
Chapter 2. Error Model and Information Reliability Assessment of Navigation Systems 42
2.1. Characteristics of Scalar Random Processes 44
2.2. Vector Markov Processes 52
2.3. Stochastic Error Models of Navigation System 56
2.4. Runs of Random Markov Processes. Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov Equations 68
2.5. NS Information Reliability Assessment under Diffusion Error Models 74
2.6. NS Information Reliability Assessment under Jump Error Models 81
Chapter 3. Information Failures and Malfunctions in Navigation Systems. Monitoring and Diagnostics Methods 89
3.1. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions as a Decision Problem 89
3.2. Review of Known Approaches to Solving Monitoring and Diagnostics Problems for Information Failures and Malfunctions 96
3.3. Estimation of Determined Dynamic System State 100
3.4. Optimal Estimation of Stochastic Dynamic System State 107
3.5. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions in NS by Optimal Methods for Multiple-Choice Filtration 115
3.6. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions in NS by Suboptimal Methods for Multiple-Choice Filtration 129
Chapter 4. Information Failures and Malfunctions of Navigation Systems. Examples of Monitoring and Diagnostics 137
4.1. Monitoring of Satellite Navigation System Integrity 137
4.2. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures in Redundant Autonomous System of Marine Navigation 146
4.3. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures in Low Redundant Autonomous System of Marine Navigation 157
Appendix 1. General Concepts of Probability Theory 175
Appendix 2. Riccati Equation Solution 181
Appendix 3. Probability of 1st Order Markov Process Non-Exceedance of a Specified Level at Interval 185
Appendix 4. Kalman Filter Ratio Derivation 193
References 200
On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the 4th Conference of Young Scientists Navigation and Motion Control 5

Session "Smart control systems"

Logical approach to dynamic systems control (L e c t u r e)

Using artificial intelligence for information-control systems

A computer-aided system for solving optimal control problems


Session "Gyroscopic systems"

On increasing the calibration accuracy of the inertial navigation system based on attitude gyros

The use of analytical gyro vertical for navigation on the railway track

V.V.Pchelin, A.V.Uskov
A stabilized gyro compass based on a strapdown short-period vertical

N.V.Goncharov, Yu.V.Filatov
Development of goniometric methods and means for monitoring the vehicle attitude


Session "Data processing"

The theory of invariants and its application in diagnosis (L e c t u r e)

Kalman filter sensitivity to uncertainty of water current when solving the problem of inertial navigation system
damping by the log

A.P.Aleshkin, T.O.Myslivtsev
Adaptive empirical estimation of the state vector for a spacecraft under measurement shortage

The use of neuronet algorithms for processing data from redundant sensors

The possibility analysis for using neural networks in solving filtering problems

Optimization of defect distinguishability in test diagnosis

Study of digital data processing algorithms for an acceleration sensor

D.P.Loukianov, A.Ya.Maizelis
Investigation of speed variations for high-speed gas flows in variable cross-section nozzles

Algebraic synthesis of controllers of gyroscopic stabilization and control systems

A system of positioning by the terrain image on the basis of line set analysis


Session "Sensors of navigation and control systems"

M.I.Evstifeev, M.F.Smirnov, A.A.Untilov
The analysis of mechanical, electrical and thermal characteristics in designing a micromechanical gyro

D.P.Loukianov, I.Yu.Ladychuk
Study of microaccelerometers using surface acoustic waves

Yu.V.Shadrin, S.G.Kucherkov
Dynamic characteristics of a ring micromechanical gyro with the open loop

Yu.V.Povodyrev, S.M.Dyugurov
Development of methods and means to increase the accuracy of the angular data pickup system of a strapdown electrostatic gyro

Experimental investigation into the thermal drift of fiber-optic gyros

D.I.Lychev, S.G.Kucherkov
A precision rotary test bench for testing a micromechanical gyro


Session "Control theory and systems"

Control of vehicles with roughly known characteristics: roughness, adaptation and robustness (L e c t u r e)

Robust stabilization of linear periodic systems

Ultimate possibilities of smoothing random processes using continuous-digital filters

An adaptive electro-hydraulic servo drive of the aircraft

A hybrid model of the direct digital control system with a unitary-code sensor

A.G.Klimenkov, A.L.Starichenkov, T.S.Chernysheva
The software of the simulator for hydrofoil ship motion control


Session "Electronic and electromechanical devices of navigation and control systems"

V.D.Aksenenko, S.I.Matveev
Synchronous demodulation using the digital signal processing technique

Ya.V.Belyaev, Ya.A.Nekrasov
The methods for estimating the accuracy of a temperature stabilization system using the software for thermal fields calculation

A superconductive geomagnetic motor for spacecraft orientation and stabilization systems


Session "Computer technologies in navigation and control"

A.A.Belash, S.S.Gurevich
The central computer of the strapdown inertial attitude system and its software

The virtual laboratory for study and control of a single-rotor vibration bench

S.N.Turusov, O.Yu.Lukomskaya
The system of informational support for organizational readiness of the ship's crew


Session "Ship navigation"

The analysis of alternative approaches to managing the controlled motion of an underwater gliding vehicle

I.F.Shishkin, A.G.Sergushev
Using the science about tracks in water areas

A.G.Shpektorov, V.A.Zuev
Stabilization of a high-speed vehicle at the prescribed route

Contrasting color of auxiliary information in the marine direction-finder


Session "Integrated navigation and orientation systems"

A.M.Boronakhin, A.V.Kazantsev. S.A.Karpasov
The results of experimental investigations of the navigation system on the railway as a part of the track measurement car CSRI-4

A stabilized gyrocompass based on fiber-optic gyros with rotating sensor unit

A.A.Pisarevsky, A.N.Doronin
The integrated system for aircraft

Yu.V.Gavrilenko, N.A.Zaitseva, E.V.Kochneva
Suboptimal double-step filter for special navigation problems


Round table
"The results and forms of holding a conference using the Internet"

Yu.A.Litvinenko, O.A.Stepanov, D.O.Taranovsky
The experience in holding the conference of young scientists Navigation and Motion Control   using the Internet

L i s t    o f    a u t h o r s
Foreword 5

L.K. Zheleznyak, V.N. Koneshov
Up-to-date methods for studying gravity field of the World ocean
L.K. Zheleznyak
The Russian marine gravimetric system
A.V. Sokolov, S.V. Usov, L.S. Elinson
Gravity survey in conditions of marine seismic work
B.A. Blazhnov, L.P. Nesenjuk, V.G. Peshekhonov, A.V. Sokolov, L.S. Elinson, L.K. Zheleznyak
An integrated mobile gravimetric system. Development and test results
V.N. Ilyin, Yu.L. Smoller, S.Sh. Yurist
A mobile ground-based gravity meter. Development and test results
V.N. Berzhitzky , V.N. Ilyin , E.B.Saveliev, Y.L. Smoller, Yu.V. Bolotin, A.A.Golovan, N.A.Parusnikov, G.V. Popov, M.V. Chichinadze
GT-1A inertial gravimeter system design experience and results of flight tests
O.A. Stepanov, B.A. Blazhnov, D.A. Koshaev
The efficiency of using velocity and coordinate satellite measurements in determining gravity aboard an aircraft
Yu.I. Nikolsky
Problems of reduction in high-accuracy gravity measurements in geodesy and geology

Gravity gradiometry

G.B. Volfson
State and prospects of gravity gradiometry development
A.B. Manukin
Design of a measuring system for a highly sensitive gravity gradiometer using vertical pendulums
M.S. Petrovskaya, G.B. Volfson
Construction of geopotential models by the satellite gradiometry data
V.G. Peshekhonov, G.B. Volfson
Problem solution for design of a gravity variometer operating on a moving base
G.B. Volfson, M.I. Evstifeev, V.G. Rozentsvein, M.P. Semenova, Yu.I. Nikolsky, E.V. Rokotyan, S.F. Bezrukov
A new generation of gravity variometers for geophysical investigations

 Borehole navigation

A.A. Molchanov, G.S. Abramov
Navigation in investigation of underground space in searching, exploring and developing mineral deposits
V.G. Rozentsvein
State of the art of borehole gyroscopic navigation systems
E.V. Freiman, S.V. Krivosheyev, V.V. Losev
Peculiarities of attitude algorithm construction for gyroscopic inclinometers based on a single-axis gyrostabilizer
N.P. Rogatykh
Methodical aspects of inclinometer design
V.M. Suminov, D.V. Galkin, A.A. Maslov
A mathematical error model of a gyro inclinometer
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Contents with abstracts
Journal "Giroskopiya i Navigatsiya" website (in Russian)
• based on fiber-optic gyros (FOG)
• based on micromechanical gyros (MMG)
• Shipborne speed and depth meters
• Magnetic compasses
• Communication complex Distancia-E
• Integrated Shipborne Communication and Broadcasting Complex P-409
• Trailing towed array device K-697E
• Equipment for shipborne self-powered telephone communication BTS
• Shipborne automatic digital telephone exchange P-443E
• Floating information assemblies for submarines
• Mobile aeromarine gravimeter Chekan-AM
• Multi-purpose bottomhole remote sensing system UZTS-90
• Micromechanical gyro MMG-2
• Micromechanical gyro MMG-EPTRON
• Multi-channel micro-acceleration measurement system SINUS
• Autonomous attitude control system for low-orbiting spacecrafts