Information Reliability, Monitoring and Diagnostics of Navigation Systems
S.P.Dmitriev, N.V.Kolesov. A.V.Osipov St. Petersburg: SRC of Russia  CSRI "Elektropribor". 2003.  p.207 Price  60 RUR © SRC of Russia  CSRI "Elektropribor". 2003. © S.P.Dmitriev, N.V.Kolesov. A.V.Osipov, 2003. ISBN 5900780465
Concepts of information failure and information reliability of navigation systems (NS) are introduced.
Procedures are considered to calculate NS information reliability, which are based on its error approximation by random diffusion and Markov jump processes. Techniques of the theory of runs and the FokkerPlanckKolmogorov equations solution are employed in the procedures. Effective algorithms are proposed and analyzed for monitoring and diagnostics of information failures and NS malfunctions. The algorithms are based on methods for nonlinear multiplechoice filtration and are supposed to use Kalman filter bank. Examples are given for implementing monitoring and diagnostics for inertial and satellite NS. The book is intended for wide range of specialists engaged in the field of NS designing. The book contains necessary reference information in mathematical statistics for better understanding the cited material. Bibliograph.: 99, Fig.44, Tab. 2 
Foreword  3 
Introduction  5 
Chapter 1. Foundations of General Reliability Theory for Technical Systems  14 
1.1. Technical System Hardware Reliability. Probabilistic Assessment  14 
1.2. Simple Flow of Events and Markov Models for Technical System Operation  19 
1.3. Reliability of Redundant Technical Systems  26 
1.4. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Technical Systems  35 
Chapter 2. Error Model and Information Reliability Assessment of Navigation Systems  42 
2.1. Characteristics of Scalar Random Processes  44 
2.2. Vector Markov Processes  52 
2.3. Stochastic Error Models of Navigation System  56 
2.4. Runs of Random Markov Processes. FokkerPlanckKolmogorov Equations  68 
2.5. NS Information Reliability Assessment under Diffusion Error Models  74 
2.6. NS Information Reliability Assessment under Jump Error Models  81 
Chapter 3. Information Failures and Malfunctions in Navigation Systems. Monitoring and Diagnostics Methods  89 
3.1. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions as a Decision Problem  89 
3.2. Review of Known Approaches to Solving Monitoring and Diagnostics Problems for Information Failures and Malfunctions  96 
3.3. Estimation of Determined Dynamic System State  100 
3.4. Optimal Estimation of Stochastic Dynamic System State  107 
3.5. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions in NS by Optimal Methods for MultipleChoice Filtration  115 
3.6. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures and Malfunctions in NS by Suboptimal Methods for MultipleChoice Filtration  129 
Chapter 4. Information Failures and Malfunctions of Navigation Systems. Examples of Monitoring and Diagnostics  137 
4.1. Monitoring of Satellite Navigation System Integrity  137 
4.2. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures in Redundant Autonomous System of Marine Navigation  146 
4.3. Monitoring and Diagnostics of Information Failures in Low Redundant Autonomous System of Marine Navigation  157 
Appendix 1. General Concepts of Probability Theory  175 
Appendix 2. Riccati Equation Solution  181 
Appendix 3. Probability of 1st Order Markov Process NonExceedance of a Specified Level at Interval  185 
Appendix 4. Kalman Filter Ratio Derivation  193 
References  200 
On behalf of the Organizing Committee of the 4^{th} Conference of Young Scientists Navigation and Motion Control  5 
Session "Smart control systems"  
S.N.Vasiliev
Logical approach to dynamic systems control (L e c t u r e) 
7 
E.A.Cherkashin
Using artificial intelligence for informationcontrol systems 
24 
T.I.Madzhara
A computeraided system for solving optimal control problems 
31 
Session "Gyroscopic systems"  
A.A.Stolbov
On increasing the calibration accuracy of the inertial navigation system based on attitude gyros 
38 
A.M.Boronakhin
The use of analytical gyro vertical for navigation on the railway track 
45 
V.V.Pchelin, A.V.Uskov
A stabilized gyro compass based on a strapdown shortperiod vertical 
53 
N.V.Goncharov, Yu.V.Filatov
Development of goniometric methods and means for monitoring the vehicle attitude 
58 
Session "Data processing"  
L.A.Mironovsky
The theory of invariants and its application in diagnosis (L e c t u r e) 
64 
Yu.A.Litvinenko
Kalman filter sensitivity to uncertainty of water current when solving the problem of inertial navigation system damping by the log 
83 
A.P.Aleshkin, T.O.Myslivtsev
Adaptive empirical estimation of the state vector for a spacecraft under measurement shortage 
89 
M.S.Koryukin
The use of neuronet algorithms for processing data from redundant sensors 
97 
G.V.Bezmen
The possibility analysis for using neural networks in solving filtering problems 
103 
K.Yu.Petrova
Optimization of defect distinguishability in test diagnosis 
107 
I.S.Kayutin
Study of digital data processing algorithms for an acceleration sensor 
115 
D.P.Loukianov, A.Ya.Maizelis
Investigation of speed variations for highspeed gas flows in variable crosssection nozzles 
121 
V.A.Smirnov
Algebraic synthesis of controllers of gyroscopic stabilization and control systems 
129 
A.V.Bobkov
A system of positioning by the terrain image on the basis of line set analysis 
137 
Session "Sensors of navigation and control systems"  
M.I.Evstifeev, M.F.Smirnov, A.A.Untilov
The analysis of mechanical, electrical and thermal characteristics in designing a micromechanical gyro 
142 
D.P.Loukianov, I.Yu.Ladychuk
Study of microaccelerometers using surface acoustic waves 
149 
Yu.V.Shadrin, S.G.Kucherkov
Dynamic characteristics of a ring micromechanical gyro with the open loop 
155 
Yu.V.Povodyrev, S.M.Dyugurov
Development of methods and means to increase the accuracy of the angular data pickup system of a strapdown electrostatic gyro 
160 
V.N.Khodurov
Experimental investigation into the thermal drift of fiberoptic gyros 
165 
D.I.Lychev, S.G.Kucherkov
A precision rotary test bench for testing a micromechanical gyro 
171 
Session "Control theory and systems"  
V.O.Nikiforov
Control of vehicles with roughly known characteristics: roughness, adaptation and robustness (L e c t u r e) 
177 
V.O.Rybinsky
Robust stabilization of linear periodic systems 
188 
K.Yu.Polyakov
Ultimate possibilities of smoothing random processes using continuousdigital filters 
196 
O.E.Yakupov
An adaptive electrohydraulic servo drive of the aircraft 
203 
T.V.Turenko
A hybrid model of the direct digital control system with a unitarycode sensor 
211 
A.G.Klimenkov, A.L.Starichenkov, T.S.Chernysheva
The software of the simulator for hydrofoil ship motion control 
218 
Session "Electronic and electromechanical devices of navigation and control systems"  
V.D.Aksenenko, S.I.Matveev
Synchronous demodulation using the digital signal processing technique 
225 
Ya.V.Belyaev, Ya.A.Nekrasov
The methods for estimating the accuracy of a temperature stabilization system using the software for thermal fields calculation 
229 
A.M.Richnyak
A superconductive geomagnetic motor for spacecraft orientation and stabilization systems 
233 
Session "Computer technologies in navigation and control"  
A.A.Belash, S.S.Gurevich
The central computer of the strapdown inertial attitude system and its software 
241 
D.A.Tomchin
The virtual laboratory for study and control of a singlerotor vibration bench 
246 
S.N.Turusov, O.Yu.Lukomskaya
The system of informational support for organizational readiness of the ship's crew 
253 
Session "Ship navigation"  
A.V.Ulanov
The analysis of alternative approaches to managing the controlled motion of an underwater gliding vehicle 
261 
I.F.Shishkin, A.G.Sergushev
Using the science about tracks in water areas 
268 
A.G.Shpektorov, V.A.Zuev
Stabilization of a highspeed vehicle at the prescribed route 
274 
N.V.Kuzmina
Contrasting color of auxiliary information in the marine directionfinder 
280 
Session "Integrated navigation and orientation systems"  
A.M.Boronakhin, A.V.Kazantsev. S.A.Karpasov
The results of experimental investigations of the navigation system on the railway as a part of the track measurement car CSRI4 
286 
S.V.Ignatiev
A stabilized gyrocompass based on fiberoptic gyros with rotating sensor unit 
291 
A.A.Pisarevsky, A.N.Doronin
The integrated system for aircraft 
299 
Yu.V.Gavrilenko, N.A.Zaitseva, E.V.Kochneva
Suboptimal doublestep filter for special navigation problems 
303 
Round table "The results and forms of holding a conference using the Internet"  
Yu.A.Litvinenko, O.A.Stepanov, D.O.Taranovsky
The experience in holding the conference of young scientists Navigation and Motion Control using the Internet 
309 
L i s t o f a u t h o r s

315 
Foreword 5 Gravimetry L.K. Zheleznyak, V.N. Koneshov
Uptodate methods for studying gravity field of the World ocean9 L.K. Zheleznyak
The Russian marine gravimetric system14 A.V. Sokolov, S.V. Usov, L.S. Elinson
Gravity survey in conditions of marine seismic work21 B.A. Blazhnov, L.P. Nesenjuk, V.G. Peshekhonov, A.V. Sokolov, L.S. Elinson, L.K. Zheleznyak
An integrated mobile gravimetric system. Development and test results33 V.N. Ilyin, Yu.L. Smoller, S.Sh. Yurist
A mobile groundbased gravity meter. Development and test results45 V.N. Berzhitzky , V.N. Ilyin , E.B.Saveliev, Y.L. Smoller, Yu.V. Bolotin, A.A.Golovan, N.A.Parusnikov, G.V. Popov, M.V. Chichinadze
GT1A inertial gravimeter system design experience and results of flight tests48 O.A. Stepanov, B.A. Blazhnov, D.A. Koshaev
The efficiency of using velocity and coordinate satellite measurements in determining gravity aboard an aircraft61 Yu.I. Nikolsky
Problems of reduction in highaccuracy gravity measurements in geodesy and geology75
Gravity gradiometryG.B. Volfson
State and prospects of gravity gradiometry development90 A.B. Manukin
Design of a measuring system for a highly sensitive gravity gradiometer using vertical pendulums105 M.S. Petrovskaya, G.B. Volfson
Construction of geopotential models by the satellite gradiometry data111 V.G. Peshekhonov, G.B. Volfson
Problem solution for design of a gravity variometer operating on a moving base118 G.B. Volfson, M.I. Evstifeev, V.G. Rozentsvein, M.P. Semenova, Yu.I. Nikolsky, E.V. Rokotyan, S.F. Bezrukov
A new generation of gravity variometers for geophysical investigations122
Borehole navigationA.A. Molchanov, G.S. Abramov
Navigation in investigation of underground space in searching, exploring and developing mineral deposits136 V.G. Rozentsvein
State of the art of borehole gyroscopic navigation systems146 E.V. Freiman, S.V. Krivosheyev, V.V. Losev
Peculiarities of attitude algorithm construction for gyroscopic inclinometers based on a singleaxis gyrostabilizer168 N.P. Rogatykh
Methodical aspects of inclinometer design178 V.M. Suminov, D.V. Galkin, A.A. Maslov
A mathematical error model of a gyro inclinometer190